How to raise poultry
Updated: Dec 22, 2021
Raising a small poultry flock can be a very enjoyable and profitable experience. A quality feeding program, along with good management will ensure success. Buckerfield’s poultry feeds are carefully formulated to provide nutritionally balanced diets for optimal health and efficient production.
What type of chickens should I buy?
· Depends on if you want chickens for meat or egg producing, white or brown eggs, single purpose or dual purpose breeds. Lots of choices!
What is a dual purpose breed?
· Dual purpose breeds can be used for eggs or meat. The cockerel can be raised for meat and the pullets will lay a good quantity of brown eggs.
Types of chickens sold at Buckerfield’s.
Meat birds: grow them fast for fryers or slow for roasters: they’ll always turn out lip-smacking good! These fast growing birds are susceptible to leg problems, heart attacks & ascites (heart valve failure leading to a fluid filled abdomen).
· Cornish Rock Giants are the fastest growing most efficient meat birds available. These birds give excellent results but are harder to raise than dual-purpose birds.
· Cornish Game Hens are everybody’s favorite treat! Note: a Cornish game hen is a female broiler!
Hybrid egg layers: ideal for the production of eggs.
· White Leghorns are ideal for the production of large, high quality, white eggs. These pullets are early maturing, disease resistant, and noted for excellent adaptability to most conditions. We highly recommend our White Leghorns for any size flock.
· Sex-Sal-Link Brown (also known as ISA brown) are hybrid brown egg layers. They are quiet, friendly and easily trained to lay in their nests. These pullets are easily raised and prolific producers of large, richly colored, brown eggs with excellent shell quality.
Dual purpose brown egg layers: can be used for both meat and egg production.
· The Rhode Island Red is an excellent hardy all round bird; producing rich dark brown eggs. Chicks are dark orange and sold unsexed only.
· Red Rock Cross is a fine balance between egg and meat production. Pullet chicks are solid black, while the rooster has a white spot on its head.
· Red Sussex Cross produces a white rooster that is easier for plucking. This chicken produces good meat, decent eggs and is very easy to handle and raise a flock. Pullet chicks are red, while the cockerels are yellow.
· Barred Plymouth Rock is one of the oldest pure breeds. They are reasonable producers of creamy brown eggs. These are tasty fat free birds, winter hardy and easy to raise. The roosters while they make good eating can be aggressive. Chicks are all black with a white spot on their heads and are sold unsexed only.
· Columbian Rock is the heaviest dual purpose bird. They are average layers of medium sized beige eggs. Very good meat birds lean, tasty and hardy. They are a good choice for all round birds with their sweet happy go lucky personality. Chicks are all yellow and sold unsexed only.
Standard Heritage Breeds: have been selected for their uniformity, rate of lay, docile temperament and are a good meat bird. They are highly desirable for their longevity and hardiness. These birds are sold unsexed.
· Danish Brown Leghorn pullets lay large white eggs while remaining pleasant and friendly. The calm roosters are dramatically colored in comparison. Great crowers!
· Americana’s are our most popular heritage breed and are layers of quality blue green eggs.
· Buff Orpington are excellent winter birds, good layers and with pale meat make this a top class dual purpose bird.
· Buff Brahma & Dark Brahma are well known for their gentle nature, hardiness, good size and being an excellent all around bird. They lay large rich brown eggs and are hardy winter layers.
· Standard White Cochin appeal as a show bird rather than for meat. Gentle temperaments, excellent winter birds, and decent layer of large brown eggs. Their extensive feather layering makes them appear round and elegant. A real wow bird!
Bantams: come in many varieties, to suit all needs. We are offering these birds as a bantam package or in an all bantam breed package. All are unsexed birds.
· White Silkies are unusual birds and known for their black skin, hair-like plumage and five toes. These birds date back to the days of Marco Polo and have remained popular as an excellent setter and for their friendly nature.
· Partridge & Black Cochin make wonderful pets, setters and are very hardy. As with all heritage breeds their longevity is remarkable; well worth keeping around for many years!
· BB Red Old English are small but have giant size personalities they chatter unlike any other breed. The roosters are very colorful while the hens are soft brown.
· Black Tailed Buff Japanese are well known for their comical short legs with dramatically elaborate main sickles. These birds are tiny as hatchlings and therefore require extra tender loving care.
What type of turkeys should I buy?
· Orlopp Bronze Turkey is going to impress you with its growth rate. Growing faster and bigger than ever! Hens may grow up to 23 lbs. and the toms up to 40 lbs. in 20 weeks. Sold unsexed only
· Nicholas White Turkey is the top growing big hearty birds. A tom at 20 weeks could weigh over 40 lbs. while a hen will weigh 18 lbs. at 16 weeks. Sold unsexed only.
Can I purchase pheasants?
· Chinese Ringneck Pheasants the most loved of all meat pheasants due to their good taste and fine looks. Pheasants are unsexed and sold in minimum quantities of 30.
What type of ducks can I raise?
· Popular egg-laying breeds are the Khaki Campbell and the Indian Runner. The Meat producing breeds such as the Peking, Muscovy or Rouen have been selected for rapid growth, mature body size, hardiness and ease of handling.
· The Peking and Muscovy ducks have white feathers, which are better for down production.
What type of geese can I raise?
· Breeds for meat production include the Toulouse, Embden and African.
· These geese have been selected for good livability, rapid growth and coats of white or near-white feathers.
Should I vaccinate my chicks?
· Chicks may be vaccinated at the hatchery for coccidiosis and mareks disease.
· If your birds are vaccinated you must use an unmedicated poultry feed.
· Any amount of medicated feed used in the first 3 weeks of the chicks life, will result in the vaccine being destroyed.
Can I raise my poultry organically?
· To grow birds organically you must use certified organic poultry feed.
· Getting the coccidiosis vaccine is a completely organic way to build immunity and is done at the hatchery.
Can I buy fertilized eggs?
· Yes! We supply hatching eggs: Broilers, Leghorn, Sex-Sal-Link Browns, Rhode Island Red, Red rock Cross or Red Sussex and White Turkey eggs. All sold in quantities of 12.
When should I order chickens or turkeys?
You should place your orders early, some breeds sell out quickly. If there is a problem at the hatchery, orders can be delayed, cancelled or postponed.
· We recommend you allow 5 weeks to ensure your full selection of birds may be shipped at one time.
· Make sure if ordering meat birds you have an appointment set up with a company that does processing.
Will my chicks arrive healthy?
· Your chicks are packaged within a few hours of hatching. Chicks absorb enough yolk to last up to 72 hours without feed or water. Your chicks are guaranteed 100% live arrival from the hatchery.
My newborn chicks are cold and thirsty!
· Prepare the brooder the day before the chicks arrive by having the heat source, litter, feed and water already in place for use.
· If your birds appear chilled from transport, warm them in their box under a heat lamp until they appear comfortable and active. Remember, a brooder at the correct temperature will quickly perk up the chicks. Watch your temperature closely! Do not let them get cold! Chilling will lead to stunted growth and continuous high mortality.
· As each bird is placed in the brooder, dip its beak in the water so they get a drink and learn to find water. Provide fresh water daily.
· Feed should be available at all times! Feed free choice!
· Use Buckerfield’s chick starter.
What type of litter should I use?
· Chicks should be raised on clean, dry, absorbent material such as wood shavings.
· Keep litter dry and replace if wet. Wet litter is a major source of disease.
How do I house my chickens?
· The house should be well insulated, free from drafts, and have a solid floor of either cement or wood. Access to an outdoor coop is optional.
· Before the birds arrive, clean and wash the inside of the house. Wipe or spray walls with a good disinfectant.
· Feeders and waterers should also be washed and disinfected prior to use. Proper disinfection is particularly important if disease has been a problem on the previous flock.
· Do not use creosote based products for disinfecting.
What feed should I buy?
· Buckerfield’s poultry feeds are designed to provide a balanced diet for each type of bird at different ages and in different stages of production. They contain the necessary vitamins, minerals, protein and energy that the birds require.
· A complete line of Buckerfield’s feed is available for chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese and other poultry.
Can I feed a treat to my chickens?
· Yes! Buckerfield’s Hen Scratch! Feeding various whole grains with cracked corn is call scratch and can be used for a treat.
Do my laying chickens need oyster shell?
· Laying hens need calcium to keep the shells thick and to prevent breakage. Oyster shell can be fed free choice or sprinkled over the feed for additional calcium.
When will my chickens lay?
· Pullets start to lay when they are about 20 weeks old.
· Hens are at their peak production when they are between 1-2 years old.
· A chicken 4 – 5 years old is OLD!
Why are my hens not laying?
· Moving the hens to a new location, changing feed, or very hot or cold temperatures will cause temporary changes to the laying pattern.
· If the chickens are receiving commercially prepared laying pellets as their sole ration, their nutritional requirements for egg production will be met. However if other grains are also being fed, the hens may be deficient in protein which will reduce egg production.
· Other causes may be an inadequate water supply, internal or external parasites, or disease.
· Feed Buckerfield’s laying pellets for a nutritional complete feed.
What is moulting?
· Moulting is the shedding and re-growth of feathers. It occurs once a year, usually in autumn, and lasts 6-8 weeks.
· Egg production usually stops during a moult.
My chickens are picking each other. What can I do?
· Picking will most often occur if the birds are too hot, crowded, short of fresh air, lack protein in their diet, or if their coop is too brightly lit.
· Use Vaseline or stop pic on the area to prevent further injury and allow healing. If a bird is injured, isolate it until wound is completely healed.
· Reduce light intensity.
· Beak trimming may be required.
· Don’t startle birds.
· Don’t overcrowd. Inadequate space for water or feed may be a contributing factor.
· Discourage birds from eating grass, bugs, table scraps.
Why have my birds got pasty rear ends?
· Chicks sometimes develop a condition called pasting up, when feces stick to the vent area. Heat or cold stress may be the cause.
· If there is a buildup of dried feces the chick will not be able to eliminate and must be cleaned off.
· It is important to remove the paste daily with warm water.
How do I know if the temperature is right?
· If your chicks are cold they will crowd beneath your heat source or just huddle where they are. They will look lethargic and will not move around much.
· If your chicks are hot they will crowd to the outer edge and spread out their wings.
· Adjust your heat source accordingly.
I think my birds have mites or lice!
· Lice and mites are a serious problem for chickens. They crawl over the chicken’s body, biting and sucking blood.
· Mites and lice cause great irritation to the bird, causing blood loss, weight loss and lowered egg production. They also lower the immune system creating susceptibility to disease.
· Ensure the house is properly sanitized prior to birds entering, minimize contact with older birds.
· Mites are brownish red and smaller then a pin head and can live on the chicken or in their bedding. Lice spend their entire life on the chicken’s body.
· Mites and lice controlling products are available at Buckerfield’s.
My broilers legs are crooked!
· Crooked legs are generally caused by the rapid rate of growth in meat-type birds.
· Maintaining good litter conditions, proper ventilation and avoid overcrowding will help.
· The heavier the birds get the greater the leg problems. Follow the feeding directions on the label of Buckerfield’s poultry food.
When can my chicks go outside?
· Generally, weather and temperature permitting, all the birds may be allowed access to the outdoors after one month of age and when the temperature does not dip below 65ºF.
· Ensure that they are properly protected from predators, including cats and dogs.
· Flight birds, such as pheasants, should have flight netting to keep them from escaping.
· Keep in mind that warm days can still end up in chilly nights.
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